Voltage Sources in Series Configuration

A circuit with two or more than two voltage sources can be reduced to a single voltage source.

The value and orientation of final voltage source depend on majority rule. To illustrate this let's consider three sources having values 2 V, 4 V and 8 V.

Here the voltage rise from left to right is  2 V + 4 V. Whereas the voltage rise from right to left is 8 V.
Now opposite voltages are subtracted, by simple mathematics our final voltage is the 2 V from right to left.

The same case holds true for all series voltage sources. Let's take a look at following solved examples:

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