Point Sources

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Very often the voltage sources are denoted using the point convention instead of normal battery symbol. This terminology is referred as point sources. Such representation uses a simple dot along with the magnitude of voltage and polarity of the voltage.

To better illustrate this let's consider a circuit with 12 V battery and a 5 k resistor:
And for a -12 V connection:

Example: Find the voltage across 10 kΩ resistor.
Solution: First redraw the circuit to simple form:
Using voltage divider:
V(10k) = (10k)/(15k)*25 V = 16.67 V.

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