Learn the basics of Electrical Engineering.

Point Sources

Very often the voltage sources are denoted using the point convention instead of normal battery symbol. This terminology is referred as point sources. Such representation uses a simple dot along with the magnitude of voltage and polarity of the voltage.

To better illustrate this let's consider a circuit with 12 V battery and a 5 k resistor:
And for a -12 V connection:

Example: Find the voltage across 10 kΩ resistor.
Solution: First redraw the circuit to simple form:
Using voltage divider:
V(10k) = (10k)/(15k)*25 V = 16.67 V.

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